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人物分类法在雅思写作中的运用

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 2018/8/8 10:17:59
  • 编辑:朗阁小编

雅思写作人物分类的运用

本文中,朗阁老师将针对学生没有想法这一弱项,给大家介绍一种比较有效的解题方法---人物分类法。

纵观现在的雅思写作成绩,不免让人感到一些压力。四门科目中,只有写作一直是中国考生的软肋。究其原因,不仅与中国考生本身的语言功底有一定的关系,比如词汇、语法、写作文的逻辑等,同样也有典型的思路缺乏。“思路”说的书面化一点就是指观点,就是指对于一个大作文话题是否能有自己独到的见解和看法。特别是在考试的时候,怎么样能让自己在有限的时间里想到观点这其实也成了一门技术。

 

本文中,朗阁老师将针对学生没有想法这一弱项,给大家介绍一种比较有效的解题方法---人物分类法。

 

一、何谓人物分类法

人物分类法从字面上看,就是指把一个抽象宽泛的人物词具体化,从不同的方面去理解这个词,这样就可以衍生出很多我们从字面上难以去挖掘的写作方向。我们首先来举出一个非常简单的例子。“people”这个词在雅思大作文的题目中出现的概率相对来讲还是比较大的。我们第一眼看到这个词的反应就是指人们,或者说是普通人,很大的一个群体。殊不知,按照不同的分类,可以从不同的领域来理解people这个词。

 

比如说,我们一般会建议学生从如下这些方面去理解people这个词在不同话题中的体现:

1. 按性别分(male/female)

2. 按年龄分 (baby, children, teenagers, young people, old people)

3. 按职业分 (housewife, commuter, …)

4. 按性格分 (introvert, extrovert)

5. 按地理位置分 (rural areas-poor, city center-rich)

 

如果我们看到这个词都从上面这些方面去考虑或者把握的话,那话题的把控就会多方面一点,思路就会想得比较多一点。比如按照男女来理解people的话,那就可以从男女的不同性格特点来分析,比如男性稍微敢于挑战,力气比较大,但却稍微有些粗心。相比女性就会更加耐心一点,但是比较内敛和含蓄。下面朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师将从历年的真题中选择几道典型的题目,帮助大家更好地理解人物分类法在分析题中的重要性。

 

二、分类法在雅思大作文中的体现

a. 典型案例1

In some countries, young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year between finishing high school and starting university studies. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide to do this.

 

分析:这是一道比较典型的教育类话题,主要描述了学生空白年(gap year)的情况,要求考生根据这个现象来分析利弊。乍一眼,这道题并没有找到特别明显的分类词,很多人觉得无从下手。下面我们一起来看一下,考官是如何把分类法贯穿在这道题中的。

 

考官范文Intro: It is quite common these days for young people in many countries to have a break from studying after graduating from high school. The trend is not restricted to rich students who have the money to travel, but is also evident among poorer students who choose to work and become economically independent for a period of time.

 

分析:粗体的这句话是指这种趋势不仅仅局限在有钱的学生当中,对于那些想要在经济上独立的穷学生来讲也是同样明显的。考官利用分类法,对于题干核心词high school graduates进行了有效的分类,分成了rich students & poor students。在这种分法的基础上,整个开头段就会显得特别清楚,内容也很充实,在得分上就会有一个明显的提升。

 

b. 典型案例2

Some people think everyone should be a vegetarian and they do not need to eat meat to stay healthy. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 

题目翻译:有些人认为每一个人都应该变成素食主义者并且不需要通过吃肉来保持健康。你在多大程度上同意或者不同意?

 

难点:(1). vegetarian这个词是一个难点词,很多考生在读题的时候会受这个词的影响。但事实上,这个词应该是雅思听力的一个高频词汇,翻译为素食主义者。

(2). 第二大难题就是题目读懂之后,很多人并不能有效地切入主题,去理思路想观点。事实上这道题目就可以用分类法快速解题。Everyone就是这道题的破题点,我们可以考虑哪些人比较适合吃素,而哪些人却需要通过吃肉来保持健康。在这种方向的点拨上,基本上观点就很容易出来了。

 

 

e.g. those who are suggested to eat fruits and vegetables--middle-aged, old people or even fat people

 

段落示范:Eating vegetables is considered as a healthy lifestyle as fruits and vegetables provide people with many necessary nutrition, such as vitamin and cellulose. However, eating meat is particularly risky for middle-aged or old people as the fat in food may become a burden to their digestion and circulation system.

 

e.g. those who are recommended to eat meat to stay healthy--children, construction workers, athletes…

 

段落示范:Meat can be a part of healthy diet and it can also provide beneficial nutrients for the body. For example, athletes are advised to eat a certain amount of meat, which can supplement the energy consumed in their daily training. Meanwhile, meat can be a regular food in children’s diet so that children can grow taller and stronger.

 

在这种分类法的帮助下,这道题的整体框架基本上就确定下来了。本文观点是whether people should be vegetarian is a personal choice and they should take their own physical conditions into consideration, 全文分成四段式:

 

 

c. 典型案例3

Putting criminals into prisons is not an effective way to deal with them. Instead, education and job training should be offered. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 

题目翻译:把罪犯关进监狱不是一种处理他们的有效方式。相反的,教育和工作培训应该被提供。你在多大程度上同意或者不同意?

 

难点:这道题本身在读题上应该不会有太大的问题,难点就是如何去构思了。犯罪类话题在雅思写作中本身就是一个比较不常见的话题,这种陌生感在考场上会加大考生的恐惧感。事实上,这道题也是典型的任务分类法题目,破题点在于“criminals”(罪犯):

 

 

罪犯的分类可以有很多方面去考虑,比如我们比较推荐的就是按犯罪的严重程度去考虑:

(a). 犯严重罪的人(serious crimes)或者惯犯(habitual/repeated crimes)

对于这种类型的人来讲,他们的恶劣行迹(例如勒索blackmail, 劫持hijack, 绑架kidnap)会给社会造成严重的后果。然而简单的教育和工作培训是很难改变他们的行为的,所以这种人必须要关进监狱来保护守法公民的安全。

(1). Imprisonment of criminals can ensure a safe living environment for the law-abiding citizens.(把罪犯关进监狱可以确保守法公民的安全)

(2). Sending criminals to prison is the best deterrent to those potential criminals and scare off the would-be criminals.(把罪犯关进监狱对于潜在和将要犯罪的罪犯起到震慑作用)

(3). For the rights of victims, it is a spiritual consolation to the victims.(关进监狱同样对于受害者是一种精神安慰)

 

(b). 犯轻微罪的人(petty/minor crimes)

对于轻微犯罪者来说,比如青少年罪犯(juvenile offenders)或者是初犯(first-time criminals), 他们犯罪的动机一般都是由于法律意识的缺乏或者是经济拮据造成的,因此教育和工作培训基本上就可以使他们改变观念,学会一技之长,成为社会有用之人。不然长期的监狱生活反倒会让他们失去自信,增加再次犯罪的几率。

 

例句示范:Education is of critical importance to rehabilitate an offender, especially juvenile and first-time offenders. By receiving educational and vocational training, these people can change their attitudes toward society and family and help them to know about how to use non-violent means to solve the problems in life. In comparison, imprisonment excludes offenders from society, increasing the risks of recommitting crimes.

 

通过分析,本题的最终观点就是criminals’ situations should be taken into consideration before deciding whether they should be sent to prison or just given education and job training.

 

 

d. 典型案例4

Instead of asking the government to bear the cost of higher education, students should pay tuition fees themselves. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 

题目翻译:学生应该自行承担学费,而不是由政府来投资。你在多大程度上同意或者不同意这个话题?

 

难点:这道题与典型案例3不同的是它是考生比较熟悉的话题,教育类话题,并且在读题上也没有太大的障碍,都是基础词汇。唯独要考虑的就是如何把这道题论证清楚。朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师建议考生们要抓住“students”这个词去分类考虑。

 

 

(a). 经济能力可以承担学费的

For those rich students who are able to afford the tuition fees, asking government to bear the cost for higher education not only adds a burden on the government but also affects the state funding on other sectors.

 

(b). 经济能力不足以承担学费的

help those top students coming from humble background or remote rural areas to receive fine education;

help those ambitious but underprivileged young people to change their fates;

 

通过上述的分类,我们对于这道题的态度基本上也已经明确了,students’ personal situations should be considered before governments decide whether to offer free higher educational fees or not. 全文的分段可以如下:

 

 

e. 典型案例5

Individuals can do nothing to improve the environment. Only governments and large companies can make a difference. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 

题目翻译:个人不能做任何事情来改善环境。只有政府和大公司可以做一些改变。你在多大程度上同意或者不同意?

 

难点:部分同学可能会对“individuals”这个单词有一些疑问。整体来说这道环境类题目是不难的,但是要写得不通俗这也是需要好好去找破题点的。而individuals这个词就是比较通俗的词,容易去细分。

 

 

举例示范:

(a). Commuters:

Instead of depending on private cars excessively, the public should be inspired to take public transit, walk on foot or ride bicycles, which would mitigate the pollution from the emission of the exhaust. Meanwhile, provided that we have to utilize personal cars, it is highly recommended that we should purchase and drive compact cars.

 

(b). Students:

Students are encouraged to do more online reading and reduce the frequency of using paper.

 

根据上文这样的分析,这道题最终的表态句基本上就出来了:Solving environmental problems needs the cooperation of individuals, governments and large companies. 全文的分段可以如下:

 

 

总结:通过对于上面5道题目的分析,相信各位考生应该对人物分类法有了一个比较清晰的了解。希望大家在今后备考或者在考场上的时候,能有效地对一个抽象名词进行一定的分类,做到分情况考虑,这样能有助于在写作思路上的扩充。

 

如果还有什么疑问,可以在线咨询我们的老师, 

 

 

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